November/December 2015

Table of Contents

Special section on sports dentistry

  • Nutrition Do current sports nutrition guidelines conflict with good oral health?

    Elizabeth M. Broad, BSc, DipNutrDiet, MAppSc, PhD
    Leslie A. Rye, DDS, MST, FASD, FAGD, FICD
    2015 Nov/Dec; 63(6):18-23.  

    Increased intake of carbohydrate-rich foods and sports drinks on products may contribute to risks of dental erosion, caries, and periodontal disease in the athlete, especially when he or she also exhibits dehydration and poor oral hygiene habits. This article reviews current sports nutrition guidelines for athletes, explains how these guidelines may impact oral health, and provides recommendations to help athletes maintain good oral health.
    Full Article (PDF)
  • Traumatic Injuries & Emergencies Traumatic injuries to athletes

    Asgeir Sigurdsson, DDS, MS
    Cecilia Bourguignon, DDS
    2015 Nov/Dec; 63(6):24-29.  

    This article focuses on the emergency treatment of common forms of dental trauma in athletes, both at the location of the injury and at the dental office. When dental injuries happen to young patients, saving the tooth is an absolute priority, because few long-term replacement solutions can be performed in a growing child. Preserving pulpal vitality of immature teeth is essential to allow continued root development.
    Full Article (PDF)
  • Sports Dentistry & Mouthguards Effects of various mouthpieces on respiratory physiology during steady-state exercise in college-aged subjects

    Dena P. Garner, PhD
    2015 Nov/Dec; 63(6):30-34.  

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of 3 different mouthpiece designs—boil-and-bite mouthpiece, ethylene vinyl acetate custom mandibular mouthpiece, and polypropylene custom mandibular mouthpiece—on respiratory physiology parameters and compare them to results of a no-mouthpiece condition. The outcomes demonstrated that the use of the boil-and-bite mouthpiece decreased respiratory rate during exercise.
    Full Article (PDF)
  • Sports Dentistry & Mouthguards Mandatory mouthguard rules for high school athletes in the United States

    Stephen C. Mills, DDS
    2015 Nov/Dec; 63(6):35-40.  

    The National Federation of State High School Associations currently mandates mouthguards for football, lacrosse, ice hockey, and field hockey players and wrestlers who wear orthodontic appliances. This article summarizes the process for rule changes at the national level and discusses the history of 4 states that have tried to mandate mouthguards for additional sports.
    Full Article (PDF)

    Sports Dentistry & Mouthguards Effect of clenching with a mouthguard on head acceleration during heading of a soccer ball

    Keishiro Narimatsu, DDS
    Tomotaka Takeda, DDS, PhD
    Kazunori Nakajima, DDS, PhD
    Michiyo Konno, DDS
    Takamitsu Ozawa, DDS, PhD
    Keiichi Ishigami, DDS, PhD
    2015 Nov/Dec; 63(6):41-46.  

    The effect of clenching a mouthguard (MG) on head acceleration during “heading” of a soccer ball was investigated. When players headed a ball without instruction or the MG, weak masseter and sternocleidomastoid activity was observed. Significant decreases in head acceleration and increases in muscle activity were observed when players headed while clenching the masseters tightly without the MG or while clenching tightly with the MG. The effect was stronger when the players wore the MG.
    Full Article (PDF)
    Self-Instruction Exercise No. 376
  • Sports Dentistry & Mouthguards Effects of mouthguards on vertical dimension, muscle activation, and athlete preference: a prospective cross-sectional study

    C. Colby Gage, DMD, DHEd
    Kellie C. Huxel Bliven, PhD, ATC
    R. Curtis Bay, PhD
    Jeremiah S. Sturgill, DMD, MPH, DHEd
    Jae Hyun Park, DMD, MSD, MS, PhD
    2015 Nov/Dec; 63(6):48-55.  

    This study of 24 adult weightlifters compared the effect of 2 self-fit, a custom, and no mouthguard on vertical dimension and muscle activation. Mean and peak activity of the anterior temporalis and masseter and mean activity of the sternocleidomastoid muscles differed significantly among mouthguards. Participants preferred custom mouthguards nearly 2:1 over self-fit performance mouthguards.
    Full Article (PDF)
  • Traumatic Injuries & Emergencies Splinting rationale and contemporary treatment options for luxated and avulsed permanent teeth

    Douglas L. Lambert, DDS
    2015 Nov/Dec; 63(6):56-60.  

    Regardless of preventive measures, damage and injury to the oral cavity can occur during participation in sports. This article identifies luxation and avulsion injuries, explains the rationale for splinting, reviews guidelines for splint duration, and discusses contemporary material options available to stabilize affected permanent dentition.
    Full Article (PDF)
  • Sports Dentistry & Mouthguards A survey of attitudes, behaviors, and needs of team dentists

    Lesley A. McGovern, RDH, MS
    Ann Eshenaur Spolarich, RDH, PhD
    Robert Keim, DDS, EdD
    2015 Nov/Dec; 63(6):61-66.  

    A survey of team dentists gathered data about their attitudes, practice behaviors, and needs as well as services provided, including oral screenings and any barriers to those screenings. The most frequently provided services were emergency treatment and mouthguards. Most team dentists performed oral screenings. The most commonly cited barrier to screenings was lack of awareness of the importance of oral health.
    Full Article (PDF)


  • Editorial Healing with love

    Roger D. Winland, DDS, MS, MAGD
    2015 Nov/Dec; 63(6):8. 
    Full Article (PDF)
  • Guest Editorial The Academy for Sports Dentistry and the Academy of General Dentistry: a winning team

    James R. Lovelace, DDS
    2015 Nov/Dec; 63(6):10. 
    Full Article (PDF)
  • Restorative Dentistry Additive occlusal equilibration

    Roger A. Solow, DDS
    2015 Nov/Dec; 63(6):12-17. 
    Full Article (PDF)
  • Answers Self-Instruction exercises No. 358, 359, and 360

    2015 Nov/Dec; 63(6):80.  
    Full Article (PDF)

Clinical Articles


    Operative (Restorative) Dentistry Effect of prolonged air drying on the bond strength of adhesive systems to dentin

    Stefanie Bressan Werle, DDS
    Ana Steglich, DDS
    Fabio Zovico Maxnuck Soares, DDS, PhD
    Rachel de Oliveira Rocha, DDS, MSc, PhD
    2015 Nov/Dec; 63(6):68-72.  

    This in vitro study evaluated the effect of air-drying time on degree of solvent evaporation (DE), dentin microtensile bond strength (µTBS), and degree of conversion (DC) of 5 adhesive systems. DE was significantly greater with prolonged air drying than with manufacturers’ suggested times. Two materials showed significantly greater µTBS with prolonged air drying. DC was not affected by air-drying time. No significant correlation was found between DC and µTBS.
    Full Article (PDF)
    Self-Instruction Exercise No. 377

    Anesthesia and Pain Control Effect of a new local anesthetic buffering device on pain reduction during nerve block injections

    Andrew W. Comerci, DDS, MS
    Steven C. Maller, DDS, MS
    Richard D. Townsend, DMD, MS
    John D. Teepe, DDS, MS
    Kraig S. Vandewalle, DDS, MS
    2015 Nov/Dec; 63(6):74-78.  

    This split-mouth, double-blind, randomized study evaluated the effectiveness of a sodium bicarbonate local anesthetic buffering device in reducing pain associated with dental injections. No statistically significant difference was found between pain levels reported for injections of buffered and standard unbuffered lidocaine.
    Full Article (PDF)
    Self-Instruction Exercise No. 378
  • Space Management/Appliances Space loss following premature loss of primary second molars

    Hassan H. Alnahwi, BDS
    Kevin J. Donly, DDS, MS
    Claudia I. Contreras, DDS
    2015 Nov/Dec; 63(6):e1-e4. 

    This study evaluated space loss (SL) caused by premature loss of primary second molars, whether the eruption status of permanent first molars affected SL, and the effectiveness of space maintainers (SMs) in preventing SL. The greatest SL occurred in the first 12 months after extraction. SL was significantly greater at both 6 and 12 months when the first molar was unerupted. SMs should be placed as soon as possible following tooth extraction to prevent undue SL.
    Full Article (PDF)
  • Digital Radiology Digital panoramic radiography versus cone beam computed tomography in the delineation of maxillomandibular tumors

    Renata Quirino de Almeida Barros, PhD
    Vanessa Maria Freire Abilio, MSc
    Angela Toshie Araki Yamamoto, PhD
    Daniela Pita de Melo, PhD
    Gustavo Pina Godoy, PhD
    Patricia Meira Bento, PhD
    2015 Nov/Dec; 63(6):e5-e10.  

    This research aimed to compare the efficacy of digital panoramic radiography (DPR) with that of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) for delineation of odontogenic and nonodontogenic tumors in 23 patients. For all analyzed variables, CBCTs offered more accurate details than did DPRs. Panoramic radiography should not be the examination of choice to visualize lesions in the maxillomandibular complex.
    Full Article (PDF)
  • Implant Restorations Narrow-implant–retained overdenture in an atrophic mandibular ridge: a case report with 6-year follow-up

    Carlos Roberto Garcia Araujo, DDS
    Paulo Antonio Martins-Junior, DDS, MSc, PhD
    Roberto Carlos de Araujo, DDS, MSc
    Marcos Augusto de Sa, MSc, PhD
    Thomaz Wassall, DDS, PhD
    Anderson Jose Ferreira, DDS, MSc, PhD
    2015 Nov/Dec; 63(6):e12-e15.

    This case report describes treatment of an edentulous 75-year-old diabetic woman with a severely resorbed mandibular ridge. Her mandibular dentition was restored with an overdenture supported by 3 narrow implants and 1 mini implant. A 6-year follow-up confirmed that the narrow implants had provided effective stability for the overdenture.
    Full Article (PDF)
  • Medical Health History/Factors What every dentist needs to know about obesity and oral health

    Deborah S. Rodriguez, DDS, FAGD, FACD
    Moshe M. Rechthand
    Nasir Bashirelahi, PhD
    2015 Nov/Dec; 63(6):e16-e19.  

    Obesity greatly increases an individual’s risk for numerous systemic diseases. Moreover, the link between obesity and periodontitis has been well documented. Dentists should be aware of the early signs of obesity and its oral manifestations and equipped to educate their patients. This article reviews recent findings on obesity and its relationship to other diseases and in particular to oral health.
    Full Article (PDF)
  • Implant Materials Accuracy of dental torque wrenches

    James S. Wood, BS
    Nicole M. Marlow, PhD, MSPH
    Monica J. Cayouette, DMD, MS, FACP
    2015 Nov/Dec; 63(6):e20-e22.  

    A calibrated gauge compared actual torque to target torque of spring- and friction-style torque wrenches. At a target of 15 N/cm, the torque of new spring wrenches was significantly different from that of used spring but not new friction wrenches. At a target of 35 N/cm, the torque of new spring wrenches was significantly different from those of new friction and used spring wrenches. Torque wrenches should be checked regularly to ensure that they are performing to target values.
    Full Article (PDF)
  • Tooth Whitening/Bleaching Toothpastes containing abrasive and chemical whitening agents: efficacy in reducing extrinsic dental staining

    Cristina Neves Girao Salgado Soares, DDS
    Flavia Lucisano Botelho do Amaral, DDS, MS, PhD
    Marcelo Ferraz Mesquita, DDS, MS, PhD
    Fabiana Mantovani Gomes Franca, DDS, MS, PhD
    Roberta Tarkany Basting, DDS, MS, PhD
    Cecilia Pedroso Turssi, DDS, MS, PhD
    2015 Nov/Dec; 63(6):e24-e28.

    This in vitro study evaluated the efficacy of toothpastes containing abrasive and chemical whitening agents in reducing the extrinsic discoloration of dental enamel. There was no observed difference between the changes in color values in dental enamel slabs brushed with whitening toothpastes and the changes found in slabs brushed with ordinary toothpaste.
    Full Article (PDF)