January/February 2020

Table of Contents


  • Editorial Amalgam

    Roger D. Winland

    2020 January/February; 68(1):5.

    Full Article (PDF)
  • Prosthodontics Treatment of vertical maxillary excess

    Samuel M. Strong

    2020 January/February; 68(1):6-8.

    Full Article (PDF)
  • Endodontics Clinical problem-solving with calcium hydroxide

    Nathan Dinsbach

    2020 January/February; 68(1):10-13.

    Full Article (PDF)
  • Pharmacology Flumazenil: a review and implications for benzodiazepine overdose

    Nathan J. Carillo
    Leonard Golden
    Mana Saraghi

    2020 January/February; 68(1):14-17.

    Full Article (PDF)
  • Restorative Dentistry Stock transmucosal extension abutment for bone- and tissue-level implants

    Roger A. Solow 

    2020 January/February; 68(1):18-20.

    Full Article (PDF)
  • Oral Diagnosis Bluish alveolar swelling and Diffuse mixed densities

    Tanya M. Gibson

    2020 January/February; 68(1):78, 80.

    Full Article (PDF)
  • Self-Instruction Answers Exercises No. 432, 433, and 434 from the January/February 2019 issue

    2020 January/February; 68(1):79.

    Full Article (PDF)

Clinical Articles


    Basic Science Comparison of 2 self-adhesive resin cements with or without a self-etching primer

    Michael R. Meharry
    Jaclyn Schwartz
    Andrew Montalvo
    Dustin Mueller
    John C. Mitchell

    To compare the shear bond strengths (SBSs) of 2 self-adhesive resin cements used with or without a self-etching primer, specimens were polished to expose enamel or dentin surfaces and randomly assigned to 12 test groups (n = 20). The tested variables were (1) the type of bonded tissue (enamel or dentin); (2) the cement used; (3) whether the cement was applied with or without a primer; (4) and whether the primer was air dried or photopolymerized. Compared to the control groups, the air-dried primer groups showed SBSs that were 4-6 times greater for specimens bonded to dentin and 2-3 times greater for specimens bonded to enamel. The photopolymerized primer groups followed the same pattern. The photopolymerized groups showed higher percentages of cohesive tooth failure than did air-dried primer groups.

    2020 January/February; 68(1):22-28.

    Full Article (PDF)
    Self-Instruction Exercise No. GD450
  • Endodontics Pathologic root migration secondary to vertical root fracture and full-coverage crowns: a report of 3 cases

    John K. Brooks
    Sheena Sikka
    Katherine Ong
    Edward K. Gamson
    Jeffery B. Price

    Occasionally, tooth fractures may demonstrate exaggerated pathologic root migration, often resulting in tooth loss. The early propagation of the root fracture may not be readily identifiable, but increased root separation, isolated deep periodontal probing depth, and characteristic radiolucent changes ultimately may facilitate the diagnosis. This article describes 3 patients with unusual presentations of pathologic root migration in endodontically treated teeth restored with full-coverage crowns.

    2020 January/February; 68(1):30-35.

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    Endodontics Cyclic fatigue resistance and metallurgic comparison of rotary endodontic file systems

    David J. Weyh
    Jarom J. Ray

    The cyclic fatigue resistance, scanning electron microscopic appearance, and energy dispersive X-ray profiles of 6 rotary files were compared in pairs: ProTaper Gold vs EdgeTaper Platinum; ProTaper Universal vs EdgeTaper; and Vortex Blue vs EdgeSequel Sapphire. The rotary files were tested in 2 sizes of each type. When similar file types and sizes were paired in independent-samples t tests, statistically significant differences (< 0.0001) in cyclic fatigue resistance were established. The matched file pairs exhibited differences in design, particularly at the tips. Nickel and titanium were present in similar percentages (1:1 atomic ratio) for all file types. The disparities in cyclic fatigue results and tip design indicate that clinicians should not expect identical clinical performance from different files.

    2020 January/February; 68(1):36-39.

    Full Article (PDF)
    Self-Instruction Exercise No. GD451

    Endodontics Antimicrobial activity of glycolic acid as a final irrigant solution for root canal preparation

    Diego José Gambin
    Luciana Oliveira Leal
    Ana Paula Farina
    Matheus Albino Souza
    Doglas Cecchin

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial capacity of glycolic acid (GA) as a final irrigant during the preparation of root canals. The sectioned root canals of extracted human teeth were contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis. The roots were divided into 7 groups (n = 10) and irrigated with 0.9% saline solution (NaCl); 6% NaOCl; 17% EDTA; 10%, 17%, or 25% GA; or 17% citric acid (CA). The greatest bacterial reduction was observed in the group irrigated with 6% NaOCl (< 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences among the groups irrigated with GA in different concentrations (P > 0.05), but they all demonstrated greater disinfection capacity than CA, EDTA, and NaCl (P < 0.05).

    2020 January/February; 68(1):41-44.

    Full Article (PDF)
    Self-Instruction Exercise No. GD452
  • Implants Implant therapy with ultratranslucent monolithic zirconia restorations in the esthetic zone: a case report

    Carlos A. Jurado
    Akimasa Tsujimoto
    Luis G. Guzman
    Nicholas G. Fischer 
    Mark D. Markham
    Wayne W. Barkmeier
    Mark A. Latta

    This case report describes implant therapy with ultratranslucent monolithic zirconia restorations in the esthetic zone. Adequate pink esthetics were achieved by delayed titanium implant placement in conjunction with guided bone regeneration.

    2020 January/February; 68(1):46-49.

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  • Removable Prosthodontics An easy transition from conventional to digital dentures for an edentulous patient: a case report

    Toni Tien Neumeier
    Harold Neumeier
    Gene Peterson

    The edentulous population is increasing globally despite advancements in dental materials and technology. Computer-engineered complete dentures can significantly reduce clinical time, provide better patient satisfaction, and enable digital record archiving. This case report describes the replacement of 30-year-old, ill-fitting dentures with digitally designed and milled prostheses that restored the vertical dimension of occlusion, masticatory function, and esthetics.

    2020 January/February; 68(1):50-55.

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  • Practice Management and Human Relations Financial conflicts of interest in dentistry: how much money do providers receive from industry?

    Kevin C. Lee
    Sung-Kiang Chuang

    The purpose of this retrospective, observational study was to characterize the amounts and types of healthcare industry payments made to dental care providers in 2017. The authors collected data from the Open Payments database maintained by the US Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Providers were classified as general dentists or specialists. Dentists received 321,627 industry payments totaling $110,750,601. The majority of dentists in this study received less than $200; the distribution of payments was positively skewed by a few top earners. The effect of these payments on clinical practice remains to be seen.

    2020 January/February; 68(1):56-60.
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  • Endodontics Surgical endodontics for management of progressive actinomycosis

    Saeed Asgary
    Bita Talebzadeh

    This case report describes treatment of a 35-year-old woman who had a progressive apical lesion after nonsurgical endodontic retreatment of her maxillary left lateral incisor. Histopathologic examination of surgical specimens obtained during root-end resection revealed a radicular cyst associated with actinomycosis. If a tooth is nonresponsive to nonsurgical endodontic treatments, apical actinomycotic infection should be suspected and a surgical approach should be planned to obtain a successful outcome.

    2020 January/February; 68(1):61-64.

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  • Basic Science Anatomical evaluation of the relationship between the maxillary posterior teeth and maxillary sinus

    Rafael Binato Junqueira
    Lílian Azevedo de Souza-Nunes
    Flávia Almeida Ribeiro Scalioni
    Naiana Nolasco de Lima Damasceno
    Francielle Silvestre Verner
    Antônio Carlos Pires Carvalho
    Marcos Vinícius Queiroz de Paula
    Karina Lopes Devito

    Cone beam computed tomograms were examined to evaluate the relationships between the root apices of maxillary posterior teeth and the maxillary sinus (MS) floor. The more posterior a tooth was in relation to the midline, the shorter the mean distance from the root apex to the MS floor (P < 0.05). Second molars exhibited the shortest distances between their root apices (especially the mesiobuccal root) and the MS and the greatest number of roots that were invaginating or in close contact with the MS. 

    2020 January/February; 68(1):66-71.
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  • Basic Science Effect of glass fiber post customization on the mechanical properties of resin cement and underlying dentin

    André Gustavo de Lima Godas
    Thaís Yumi Umeda Suzuki
    Bruna de Oliveira Reis
    André Luiz Fraga Briso
    Wirley Gonçalves Assunção
    Paulo Henrique dos Santos

    This study evaluated the Martens hardness (HM) and elastic modulus (EIT) of resin cement and dentin underlying the bonding interface of customized glass fiber posts luted to intraradicular dentin. Forty premolars were divided into 4 groups (customized or noncustomized glass fiber post, with or without mechanical cycling) and sectioned into thirds. For resin cement in the cervical region, the highest HM and EIT values were observed in the noncustomized group after mechanical cycling. Similarly, in the underlying dentin, specimens in the noncustomized group after mechanical cycling had the highest HM values in the cervical region. Therefore, customization of glass fiber posts with composite resin is not essential for bonding to intraradicular dentin.

    2020 January/February; 68(1):72-77.

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