Effect of remineralizing agents on the bleaching efficacy of gels

Self-Instruction Exercise No. 341
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Exercise No. 341
Subject Code: 781
Tooth Whitening/Bleaching

The 15 questions for this exercise are based on the article, Effect of remineralizing agents on the bleaching efficacy of gels, on pages 67-71. This exercise was developed by Steven E. Holbrook, DMD, MAGD, in association with the General Dentistry Self-Instruction committee.

Reading the article and successfully completing this exercise will enable you to:

  • identify the effects of bleaching gels on enamel;
  • recognize that bleaching efficiency is not reduced by adding remineralizing agents; and
  • understand the advantages of adding remineralizing agents to bleaching gels.

Answers for this exercise must be received by October 31, 2014.

  1. Which type of chemical reaction is involved in the basic process of bleaching?

    A. oxidation
    B. displacement
    C. addition
    D. hydrolysis

  2. A previous study indicated that the addition of fluoride did not affect the bleaching results when using

    A. 7.5% hydrogen peroxide.
    B. 10% carbamide peroxide.
    C. 20% carbamide peroxide.
    D. 35% hydrogen peroxide.

  3. The benefits of adding a remineralizing agent to bleaching gels include all of the following except one. Which is the exception?

    A. increased mineral deposition
    B. reduced enamel solubility
    C. decreased sensitivity
    D. increased permeability

  4. The incorporation of fluoride in enamel during bleaching may be reduced by the decomposition of

    A. hydrogen peroxide.
    B. calcium carbonate.
    C. calcium phosphate.
    D. enamel prisms.

  5. The most relevant color model value for evaluating the results of bleaching is _____.
    A. a*
    B. b*
    C. c*
    D. L*

  6. A(n) _________ in ΔL and a(n) __________ in Δb was observed in the experimental groups.

    A. increase; decrease
    B. decrease; decrease
    C. decrease; increase
    D. increase; increase

  7. Laboratory studies revealed a clinically significant loss of calcium in bleached enamel. The application of fluoride following bleaching procedures is recommended to promote the repair of structural changes in bleached enamel.

    A. Both statements are true.
    B. The first statement is true; the second is false.
    C. The first statement is false; the second is true.
    D. Both statements are false.

  8. Which method of measuring color change was used in this study?

    A. shade guide
    B. colorimeter
    C. digital photography
    D. spectrophotometer

  9. Which of the following conclusions could be drawn from this study?

    A. Both concentrations of hydrogen peroxide produced similar effects.
    B. 35% hydrogen peroxide inhibited fluoride uptake.
    C. Calcium addition decreases bleaching efficiency.
    D. Fluoride addition enhances bleaching efficiency.

  10. Which of the following was seen in enamel bleached with carbamide peroxide?

    A. an increase in calcium concentration and a decrease in phosphorus concentration
    B. a decrease in calcium concentration and an increase in phosphorus concentration
    C. a decrease in calcium concentration and a decrease in phosphorus concentration
    D. an increase in calcium concentration and an increase in phosphorus concentration

  11. Sodium fluoride acts with the calcium of the tooth to form carbonates and phosphates. The resultant layer of calcium fluoride acts to enhance remineralization.

    A. Both statements are true.
    B. The first statement is true; the second is false.
    C. The first statement is false; the second is true.
    D. Both statements are false.

  12. The a* plane of the color model represents the degree of __________ color.

    A. green/red
    B. white/black
    C. blue/yellow
    D. red/cyan

  13. Hydrogen peroxide readily penetrates the interior of the enamel and dentin due to its

    A. surface surfactants.
    B. Van der Walls forces.
    C. low molecular weight.
    D. antioxidant activity.

  14. The L* axis of the color model represents the degree of _________________.

    A. saturation
    B. chroma
    C. lightness
    D. brightness

  15. What was the thickness of the bleaching gel layer used in this study?

    A. 0.5 mm
    B. 1.0 mm
    C. 1.5 mm
    D. 2.0 mm


Evaluation

Please respond to the statements below, using the following scale:
1 Poor; 2 Below average; 3 Average; 4 Above average; 5 Excellent

Practicality of the content 1 2 3 4 5
Benefit to your clinical practice 1 2 3 4 5
Quality of illustrations 1 2 3 4 5
Clarity of objectives 1 2 3 4 5
Clarity of exercise questions 1 2 3 4 5
Relevance of exercise questions 1 2 3 4 5
 
Did this exercise achieve its objectives? Yes No
Did this article present new information? Yes No
How much time did it take you to complete this exercise? mins


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