Starting December 1, 2018, the Self-Instruction program will be exclusively available online. We will still publish Self-Instruction (S-I) exercises at the end of every corresponding General Dentistry article, but now you can pay online, test online, and receive your continuing education (CE) verification online. Earning CE has never been easier. 

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If you have any questions, or if you are unsure of your enrollment status, please call the Manager, Examinations and Self-Instruction, toll-free at 888.243.3368, ext. 4336.

Participants must answer at least 12 of 15 questions correctly (80%) to earn CE credit.

AGD - Self-Instruction Exercise No. 406 - Pediatric Dentistry
Association between body mass index and dental age in Hispanic children

Self-Instruction Exercise No. 406
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Exercise No. 406
Subject Code: 430
Pediatric Dentistry

The 15 questions for this exercise are based on the article Association between body mass index and dental age in Hispanic children on pages 59-58. This exercise was developed by Charles Martello, DDS, MAGD, in association with the General Dentistry Self-Instruction committee.

Reading the article and successfully completing this exercise will enable you to:

  • identify the association between body mass index (BMI) and craniofacial development;
  • understand that the dentist may choose to employ a conservative restorative approach if premature tooth exfoliation is anticipated; and
  • recognize the importance of timely orthodontic referral for patients with premature dental development.

Answers for this exercise must be received by June 30, 2018.

  1. Which research design was implemented in this study?

    A. longitudinal
    B. cross-sectional
    C. retrospective cohort
    D. case-control

  2. Overweight/obese Hispanic children were approximately 3.5 times more dentally advanced. The older the chronologic age, the greater the difference.

    A. Both statements are true
    B. The first statement is true; the second is false.
    C. The first statement is false; the second is true.
    D. Both statements are false.

  3. Which method is considered the gold standard to assess skeletal maturation?

    A. tooth eruption
    B. cervical vertebral maturation
    C. hand-wrist radiographs
    D. nutritional status

  4. The rating system proposed by Demirjian et al is concerned with all of the following except one. Which is the exception?

    A. root length
    B. crown shape
    C. root closure
    D. crown formation

  5. How many teeth are needed to accurately employ the Demirjian rating system?

    A. 20
    B. 7
    C. 5
    D. 2

  6. Which researchers found a direct relationship between an increase in BMI and early maturation among children?

    A. Biro et al
    B. Thomas et al
    C. Mack et al
    D. Hilgers et al

  7. Which statistical analyses examined the association of chronologic and dental age?

    A. analyses of variance
    B. Pearson correlations
    C. Bland-Altman
    D. paired t tests

  8. What percentage of the participants were deemed obese?

    A. 13
    B. 17
    C. 23
    D. 26

  9. How many children who participated in the study were of Mexican descent?

    A. 61
    B. 70
    C. 212
    D. 265

  10. Specific consequences of obesity include all of the following except one. Which is the exception?

    A. type 1 diabetes
    B. osteoporosis
    C. cardiovascular disease
    D. hypertension

  11. Why should orthodontists consider weight status when evaluating growing children and adolescents?

    A. accelerated dental development
    B. deliberate craniofacial maturation
    C. leisurely tooth eruption
    D. high caries incidence

  12. What is the difference in years between dental and chronologic ages for overweight/obese younger Iranian orthodontic patients?

    A. 2.50
    B. 1.80
    C. 0.73
    D. 0.63

  13. The ______ developed before the ______ among the overweight/obese population.

    A. canine; first premolar
    B. lateral incisor; central incisor
    C. second premolar; first premolar
    D. first molar; central incisor

  14. In a study by ________, it was concluded that a higher BMI was the strongest predictor of earlier maturation.

    A. Mani et al
    B. Demirjian et al
    C. Biro et al
    D. Hilgers et al

  15. What was the mean difference (in months) between chronologic and dental ages for obese/overweight children?

    A. 3.4
    B. 9.16
    C. 9.44
    D. 11.7


Please respond to the statements below, using the following scale:
1 Poor; 2 Below average; 3 Average; 4 Above average; 5 Excellent

Practicality of the content 1 2 3 4 5
Benefit to your clinical practice 1 2 3 4 5
Quality of illustrations 1 2 3 4 5
Clarity of objectives 1 2 3 4 5
Clarity of exercise questions 1 2 3 4 5
Relevance of exercise questions 1 2 3 4 5
Did this exercise achieve its objectives? Yes No
Did this article present new information? Yes No
How much time did it take you to complete this exercise? mins