Cigarette smoke: effects on water sorption and solubility of restorative dental composites

Self-Instruction Exercise No. 347
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Exercise No. 347
Subject Code: 017
Dental Materials

The 15 questions for this exercise are based on the article, "Cigarette smoke: effects on water sorption and solubility of restorative dental composites", on pages 54-57. This exercise was developed by Charles Martello, DDS, FAGD, in association with the General Dentistry Self-Instruction committee.

Reading the article and successfully completing this exercise will enable you to:

  • recognize the influence of cigarette smoke on water sorption and solubility of dental composite resins;
  • understand that increased water sorption and solubility can lead to increased polymer breakdown and decreased durability of dental composite resins; and
  • utilize knowledge acquired clinically in the selection and application of restorative dental composites.

Answers for this exercise must be received by February 28, 2015.

  1. In this study, Filtek Z250 demonstrated the highest solubility behavior. Filtek Z250 is a nanofilled resin.

    A. Both statements are true.
    B. The first statement is true; the second is false.
    C. The first statement is false; the second is true.
    D. Both statements are false.

  2. Which statement is true of the sample preparation?

    A. A total of 10 disc shaped specimens were prepared.
    B. Composite resin was inserted into a ceramic mold in a single increment.
    C. Groups were assigned according to the composite resin and smoke exposure.
    D. All specimens were irradiated equally for a total curing time of 15 seconds.

  3. Which elevated tar cigarette was used in the study?

    A. Hollywood Original Blend
    B. Marlboro Light
    C. Marlboro Red Original
    D. Newport Light

  4. Takeuchi et al reported that

    A. the use of tobacco is epidemic and expanding.
    B. there is a positive correlation between composite resins and extrinsic staining.
    C. smoking can increase the development of caries.
    D. cigarette byproducts may be observed in composite resin and dental structures.

  5. The 3 composite resins employed in the study were selected based on

    A. curing time.
    B. filler particle size.
    C. wear resistance.
    D. polymerization shrinkage.

  6. The nanofilled composite evaluated was

    A. Durafill VS.
    B. Filtek Z250.
    C. Filtek Z350 XT.
    D. Tetric EvoCeram.

  7. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of cigarette smoke products on the water sorption and solubility of composite resins. The greater the degree of conversion into dimethacrylate-based matrixes, the higher the mean solubility value of the restorative dental composite.

    A. Both statements are true.
    B. The first statement is true; the second is false.
    C. The first statement is false; the second is true.
    D. Both statements are false.

  8. Water sorption was significantly increased in all composites after

    A. storage in a desiccator.
    B. gentle wiping with absorbent paper.
    C. cigarette smoke exposure.
    D. exposure to 55-second cure.

  9. The value for water sorption (WS) was calculated as

    A. WS = (M2 + M3)/V.
    B. WS = (M2 – M3)/V.
    C. WS = (M3 – M2)/V.
    D. WS = (M3 + M2)/V.

  10. What was determined from this study?

    A. The first null hypothesis was accepted.
    B. The second null hypothesis was accepted.
    C. Both null hypotheses were rejected.
    D. Both null hypotheses were accepted.

  11. Takeuchi et al observed all of the following chemical elements in composite resin exposed to cigarette smoke except one. Which is the exception?

    A. Arsenic
    B. Cadmium
    C. Lead
    D. Selenium

  12. Resistance of dissolution in composite resin can be contributed to

    A. higher levels of monomer conversion.
    B. lower molecular weight of monomer.
    C. higher mean solubility values of monomer.
    D. higher level of unpolymerized monomer.

  13. A conclusion in this study revealed that cigarette smoke affects the water sorption and solubility of dental composites, which can lead to ____________ polymer degradation and may ____________ the durability of restorative procedures.

    A. increased; increase
    B. decreased; decrease
    C. increased; decrease
    D. decreased; increase

  14. Restorative dental composite restorations exhibit decreased water solubility and greater durability with an increase in

    A. monomer conversion.
    B. water sorption.
    C. residual monomer.
    D. plasticizing effect.

  15. Clinical behavior of dental composite resins is multifactorial and has been associated with intrinsic components, such as

    A. distilled water.
    B. filler type.
    C. ethanol.
    D. cigarette smoke.


Please respond to the statements below, using the following scale:
1 Poor; 2 Below average; 3 Average; 4 Above average; 5 Excellent

Practicality of the content 1 2 3 4 5
Benefit to your clinical practice 1 2 3 4 5
Quality of illustrations 1 2 3 4 5
Clarity of objectives 1 2 3 4 5
Clarity of exercise questions 1 2 3 4 5
Relevance of exercise questions 1 2 3 4 5
Did this exercise achieve its objectives? Yes No
Did this article present new information? Yes No
How much time did it take you to complete this exercise? mins

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