Prevalence and variations of the median maxillary labial frenum in children, adolescents, and adults in a diverse population

Self-Instruction Exercise No. 327
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Exercise No. 327 Subject Code: 734 Clinical Diagnosis

The 15 questions for this exercise are based on the article, "Prevalence and variations of the median maxillary labial frenum in children, adolescents, and adults in a diverse population" on pages 57-60. This exercise was developed by Steven E. Holbrook, DMD, MAGD, in association with the General Dentistry Self-Instruction committee.

Reading the article and successfully completing this exercise will enable you to:

  • identify the origin and histology of the median maxillary labial frenum (MMLF);
  • recognize variations of the MMLF;
  • identify the location and prevalence of these variations; and
  • understand that these variations do not represent a pathological process.

Answers for this exercise must be received by February 28, 2014.

  1. The MMLF is a posteruptive remnant of the

    A. third brachial arch.
    B. tectolabial bands.
    C. nasolabial fold.
    D. plicae transversae.

  2. Appendices of the MMLF were most commonly found in the _____ third.

    A. intermediate
    B. labial
    C. alveolar
    D. gingival

  3. Nodules of the MMLF were most commonly found in the _____ third.

    A. intermediate
    B. labial
    C. alveolar
    D. gingival

  4. Frenum with nodule was found to occur in what percentage of the subjects?

    A. 7%
    B. 10%
    C. 17%
    D. 27%

  5. Frenum with appendix was found to occur in approximately what percentage of subjects?

    A. 7%
    B. 10%
    C. 17%
    D. 27%

  6. Other commonplace developmental conditions of the oral cavity that typically require no treatment include all of the following except one. Which is the exception?

    A. Fordyce granules
    B. Fissured tongue
    C. Leukoedema
    D. Ameloblastoma

  7. Which of the following occurred in a significantly higher number of Caucasians when compared to African Americans?

    A. Appendix frena
    B. Nodule frena
    C. Bifid frena
    D. Recessed frena

  8. Variations and anomalies of the MMLF are rare. MMLF tissue nodules should be routinely biopsied.

    A. Both statements are true.
    B. The first statement is true; the second is false.
    C. The first statement is false; the second is true.
    D. Both statements are false.

  9. Some authors believe that the frenal tag is familial and inherited as an ________________ trait.

    A. autosomal recessive
    B. allosomal dominant
    C. autosomal dominant
    D. allosomal recessive

  10. The smallest number of subjects in this study exhibited a

    A. frenum normale.
    B. bifid frenum.
    C. duplication of frenum.
    D. recess of frenum.

  11. The data from this study supports the hypothesis that the etiology of tissue tags of the MMLF is

    A. developmental.
    B. genetic.
    C. environmental.
    D. pathological.

  12. The MMLF is composed of pseudostratified columnar epithelium. This layer covers highly vascular loose fibrous connective tissue containing an abundance of elastic fibers.

    A. Both statements are true.
    B. The first statement is true; the second is false.
    C. The first statement is false; the second is true.
    D. Both statements are false.

  13. Which of the following conditions is often unnecessarily biopsied?

    A. Fordyce granules
    B. Retrocuspid papilla
    C. Leukoplakia
    D. Fissured tongue

  14. The current study and the study by Sewerin both found __________ in frena types between males versus females and __________ about the most common location of nodules and appendices.

    A. a significant difference, agreed
    B. no significant difference, disagreed
    C. a significant difference, disagreed
    D. no significant difference, agreed

  15. What is the main difference between the subject pool of the Diaz-Pizan study and the current study?

    A. Age
    B. Ethnicity
    C. Sex
    D. Nutrition


Evaluation

Please respond to the statements below, using the following scale:
1 Poor; 2 Below average; 3 Average; 4 Above average; 5 Excellent

Practicality of the content 1 2 3 4 5
Benefit to your clinical practice 1 2 3 4 5
Quality of illustrations 1 2 3 4 5
Clarity of objectives 1 2 3 4 5
Clarity of exercise questions 1 2 3 4 5
Relevance of exercise questions 1 2 3 4 5
 
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Did this article present new information? Yes No
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