Blood contamination of used dental anesthetic cartridges

Self-Instruction Exercise No. 326
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Exercise No. 326 Subject Code: 148 Infectious Disease

The 15 questions for this exercise are based on the article, "Blood contamination of used dental anesthetic cartridges", on pages 32-36. This exercise was developed by Gustav Gates, DDS, MAGD, in association with the General Dentistry Self-Instruction committee.

Reading the article and successfully completing the exercise will enable you to:

  • recognize the difference between regulated medical waste and unregulated medical waste;
  • review the position OSHA has taken on dental anesthetic cartridges regarding medical waste;
  • understand the research on contamination of dental anesthetic cartridges during local injections; and
  • understand the antimicrobial effect local anesthetic has on certain bacteria.

Answers for this exercise must be received by February 28, 2014.

  1. OSHA does not consider used dental anesthetic cartridges to be regulated medical waste. Numerous studies have proven no risk is present.

    A. Both statements are true.
    B. The first statement is true; the second is false.
    C. The first statement is false; the second is true.
    D. Both statements are false.

  2. Regulated medical waste is estimated to be _________ of the total dental waste.

    A. 1%
    B. 2%
    C. 3%
    D. 4%

  3. Research indicates that waste from dental facilities has a greater variety of microbial contaminants than household waste. Household waste, however, has up to _____ times greater contamination than dental facility waste.

    A. 25
    B. 50
    C. 75
    D. 100

  4. The blood aspiration technique is used during injection of local anesthetic to

    A. dilute the anesthetic solution.
    B. prevent systemic complications.
    C. bring the anesthetic solution to body temperature.
    D. prevent clogging of the needle.

  5. It is reported in the literature that visible blood is found in dental anesthetic cartridges between 3.6% and ____% of the time.

    A. 22
    B. 25
    C. 28
    D. 31

  6. OSHA considers all the following contaminated sharps except one. Which is the exception?

    A. Broken glass
    B. Scalpels
    C. Exposed ends of dental wires
    D. Micro Brush

  7. All of the following are anesthetic agents that were used during testing except one. Which was the exception?

    A. Articaine (4% with 1:100,000 epinephrine)
    B. Bupivacaine (0.5% with 1:200,000 epinephrine)
    C. Lidocaine (2% with 1:100,000 epinephrine)
    D. Prilocaine (4% with 1:200,000 epinephrine)

  8. Multistix dipsticks were used to measure minute amounts of blood in the dental cartridges. These dipsticks are designed to measure blood in urine.

    A. Both statements are true.
    B. The first statement is true; the second is false.
    C. The first statement is false; the second is true.
    D. Both statements are false.

  9. All of the following are different types of bacteria that were used to measure the antimicrobial abilities of local anesthetic except one. Which was the exception?

    A. Streptococcus viridans
    B. Streptococcus mutans
    C. Lactobacillus casei
    D. Staphylococcus aureus

  10. Lidocaine caused a ____% reduction in the number of M. bovis over a 6-hour exposure.

    A. 3.46
    B. 6.12
    C. 8.91
    D. 10.23

  11. Lidocaine and PBS had similar effects on M. bovis. Lidocaine demonstrated a high disinfectant efficacy against M. bovis.

    A. Both statements are true.
    B. The first statement is true; the second is false.
    C. The first statement is false; the second is true.
    D. Both statements are false.

  12. This study found that _____% of cartridges tested had trace amounts of blood or blood particles present.

    A. 25.6
    B. 54.9
    C. 76.4
    D. 88.5

  13. The test cartridges of lidocaine had a _______% Multistix score of 1 or greater.

    A. 89.1
    B. 78.67
    C. 58.82
    D. 56.09

  14. The lowest kill rate for lidocaine exposures came at which time period with Lactobacillus casei?

    A. 1.0 minute
    B. 1.0 hour
    C. 4.0 hour
    D. 16.0 hour

  15. Lidocaine was more effective in killing _________________ than the other bacteria.

    A. Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans
    B. Streptococcus mutans
    C. Lactobacillus casei
    D. Staphylococcus aureus


Evaluation

Please respond to the statements below, using the following scale:
1 Poor; 2 Below average; 3 Average; 4 Above average; 5 Excellent

Practicality of the content 1 2 3 4 5
Benefit to your clinical practice 1 2 3 4 5
Quality of illustrations 1 2 3 4 5
Clarity of objectives 1 2 3 4 5
Clarity of exercise questions 1 2 3 4 5
Relevance of exercise questions 1 2 3 4 5
 
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Did this article present new information? Yes No
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