Dental findings in a child with chronic renal failure secondary to cystinosis

Self-Instruction Exercise No. 325
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Exercise No. 325
Subject Code: 738
Case Presentations

The 15 questions for this exercise are based on the article, "Dental findings in a child with chronic renal failure secondary to cystinosis", on pages 16-17. This exercise was developed by Merlin P. Ohmer, DDS, FAGD, in association with the General Dentistry Self-Instruction committee.

Reading the article and answering the questions will enable you to:

  • understand the relationship between renal disease and dental abnormalities;
  • gain a better understanding of cystinosis; and
  • understand dental developmental abnormalities.

Answers for this exercise must be received by February 28, 2014.

  1. Cystinosis features all of the following factors except one. Which is the exception?

    A. Genetically mediated
    B. Renal condition
    C. Dental hypercalcification
    D. Metabolic disorder

  2. Dental anomalies in cystinosis may include

    A. gemination.
    B. concrescence.
    C. agenesis.
    D. dilacerations.

  3. The frequency of cystinosis is _______%.

    A. 0.001
    B. 0.01
    C. 0.1
    D. 1.0

  4. Signs and symptoms of cystinosis include all of the following except one. Which is the exception?

    A. Diabetes
    B. Muscle hypertrophy
    C. Blindness
    D. Dysphagia

  5. The dental manifestations of cystinosis are due to

    A. genetic defects.
    B. electrolyte imbalance.
    C. mineral imbalance.
    D. organic defects.

  6. The patient in the study had all of the following conditions except one. Which is the exception?

    A. Renal failure
    B. Peritonitis
    C. Hypotension
    D. Anemia

  7. The patient in the study was taking all of the following medications except one. Which was the exception?

    A. Calcium citrate
    B. Folic acid
    C. Antidepressants
    D. B complex

  8. Which best describes the patient’s calculus?

    A. Subgingival, lower incisors
    B. Supragingival, lower incisors
    C. Subgingival, upper incisors
    D. Supragingival, upper incisors

  9. The patient in the study presented with delayed development of the

    A. maxillary lateral incisors.
    B. maxillary first premolars.
    C. maxillary first molars.
    D. Maxillary second premolars

  10. All of the following teeth developed in the patient except one. Which is the exception?

    A. Mandibular lateral incisors
    B. Mandibular second molars
    C. Maxillary first molars
    D. Maxillary second premolars

  11. The patient’s teeth in the study exhibited multiple enamel and structural defects. The patient also presented with multiple, severe carious lesions.

    A. Both statements are true.
    B. The first statement is true; the second is false.
    C. The first statement is false; the second is true.
    D. Both statements are false.

  12. What percentage of chronic renal failure in children is due to cystinosis?

    A. 0.5
    B. 1.0
    C. 5.0
    D. 10.0

  13. In cystinosis patients, end-stage renal disease usually occurs prior to _____ years of age.

    A. 10
    B. 15
    C. 20
    D. 25

  14. In cystinosis patients, enamel hypoplasia is probably due to

    A. organic imbalance.
    B. inorganic imbalance.
    C. matrix defect.
    D. high intraoral acid level.

  15. Cystinosis patients exhibit increased

    A. caries.
    B. calculus.
    C. salivary flow.
    D. mobility.


Please respond to the statements below, using the following scale:
1 Poor; 2 Below average; 3 Average; 4 Above average; 5 Excellent

Practicality of the content 1 2 3 4 5
Benefit to your clinical practice 1 2 3 4 5
Quality of illustrations 1 2 3 4 5
Clarity of objectives 1 2 3 4 5
Clarity of exercise questions 1 2 3 4 5
Relevance of exercise questions 1 2 3 4 5
Did this exercise achieve its objectives? Yes No
Did this article present new information? Yes No
How much time did it take you to complete this exercise? mins

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