Obesity and periodontitis: a link

Self Instruction Exercise No. 323
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Exercise No. 323
Subject Code: 490
Periodontics

The 15 questions for this exercise are based on the article, Obesity and periodontitis: a link, on pages 60-63. This exercise was developed by Gustav Gates, DDS, MAGD, in association with the General Dentistry Self-Instruction committee.

Reading the article and successfully completing this exercise will enable you to:

  • understand the current information regarding the link between obesity and periodontitis;
  • understand the role of inflammatory pathways connecting periodontitis to obesity; and
  • review the current literature on obesity and periodontitis.

Answers for this exercise must be received by December 31, 2013.

  1. A person who has a body mass index (BMI) of _____ is considered obese.

    A. 15
    B. 22
    C. 29
    D. 36

  2. In the United States _____% of adult men and _____% of adult women are considered obese.

    A. 15.8; 16.9
    B. 18.2; 21.3
    C. 28.6; 29.4
    D. 32.2; 35.5

  3. Obesity is a systemic disease which has been identified as a risk factor for development of all the following except one. Which is the exception?

    A. Hypertension
    B. Type 1 diabetes
    C. Cardiovascular disease
    D. Dyslipidemia

  4. Elevated leptin levels in healthy individuals have been shown to

    A. increase food intake.
    B. create positive energy balance.
    C. increase energy expenditure.
    D. cause hyperphagia.

  5. Obese individuals generally exhibit unusually high levels of circulating leptin. This suggests a resistance to leptin in much the same way individuals with type 2 diabetes are resistant to insulin.

    A. Both statements are true.
    B. The first statement is true; the second is false
    C. The first statement is false; the second is true.
    D. Both statements are false.

  6. Adipose tissue has been shown to be a metabolically active organ. It has been shown to do all of the following except one. Which is the exception?

    A. Be a repository for fat cells
    B. Secrete over 50 bioactive substances
    C. Secrete C-reactive protein (CRP)
    D. Secrete proinflammatory cytokines

  7. Leptin is produced by the adipose tissue. It is involved in all of the following except one. Which is the exception?

    A. Reproduction
    B. Energy metabolism
    C. Exocrine function
    D. Bone metabolism

  8. In periodontitis, the proinflammatory actions of TNF-a contribute to the loss of attachment. One inflammatory mediator that has been implicated in alveolar bone loss is IL-17.

    A. Both statements are true.
    B. The first statement is true; the second is false.
    C. The first statement is false; the second is true.
    D. Both statements are false.

  9. It has become increasingly clear from the periodontal literature that bacteria drive the inflammatory process. Levels of CRP are lower in patients with periodontal disease.

    A. Both statements are true.
    B. The first statement is true; the second is false.
    C. The first statement is false; the second is true.
    D. Both statements are false.

  10. The relationship between obesity and periodontitis was first reported by _____ in 1977.

    A. Offenbacher & Beck
    B. Carroll & Flegal
    C. Perlstein & Bissada
    D. Carroll & Beck

  11. An analysis of the data from the United States NHANES III survey found that an individual was 40% less likely to have periodontitis if they did all of the following except one. Which is the exception?

    A. Maintained normal weight
    B. Exercised regularly
    C. Followed the Food Guide Pyramid
    D. Took 3000 IU of vitamin C daily

  12. A study of patients who underwent bariatric surgery and lost _____% of their excess weight had a statistically significant improvement in periodontal status.

    A. 10
    B. 20
    C. 30
    D. 40

  13. Chaffee & Weston found 70 studies that examined the relationship between obesity and periodontitis. Of the 70 studies, _____ suggest a positive association between the two.

    A. 24
    B. 35
    C. 41
    D. 56

  14. Analysis of the Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey found a significant association between _____ and periodontitis.

    A. location of body fat
    B. age of patient
    C. dental visits per year
    D. socioeconomic status

  15. By definition, periodontitis is an acute inflammatory disease of bacterial origin. It affects <30% of the United States population 30 years of age and over.

    A. Both statements are true.
    B. The first statement is true; the second is false.
    C. The first statement is false; the second is true.
    D. Both statements are false.


Evaluation

Please respond to the statements below, using the following scale:
1 Poor; 2 Below average; 3 Average; 4 Above average; 5 Excellent

Practicality of the content 1 2 3 4 5
Benefit to your clinical practice 1 2 3 4 5
Quality of illustrations 1 2 3 4 5
Clarity of objectives 1 2 3 4 5
Clarity of exercise questions 1 2 3 4 5
Relevance of exercise questions 1 2 3 4 5
 
Did this exercise achieve its objectives? Yes No
Did this article present new information? Yes No
How much time did it take you to complete this exercise? mins


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